Periodontal diseases are inflammatory diseases influencing other tissues which support teeth and gums. Periodontal diseases are responsible for 60 per cent of tooth losses among adults.
When teeth are not properly cleaned the leftover food between and on the teeth produces bacteria. This formation called bacterial plaque causes tooth decay and gum inflammation (gingivitis). An inflamed gum is red, tends to bleed and causes oral malodour. Tartar occurs over time because of the sedimentation of minerals within saliva on bacterial plaque. If these tartars and inflammations are not treated, it causes gums to recede, and accordingly causes supportive bone tissue, and teeth to become loose (periodontitis) and fall.
Healthy gum is light pink, clings firmly to the teeth and bone, and has a bright and lightly rough appearance. The treatment of gum disease at the early stage usually includes the removal of tartar and smoothing of root surface. These treatments are performed with various hand-held devices, ultrasonic devices and lasers. Advanced periodontal diseases are treated via surgical operations
Periodontal diseases can occur for reasons apart from inadequate tooth cleaning:
in physiological conditions such as pregnancy, and adolescence,
in diseases such as diabetes and cancer
due to the long-term use of some drugs